Abstracts of papers (2005)

Last Update: 01/06/2006

Abstracts of papers (2005)

[2005-1] Nishimura, K. et al., Biochem. J. 385, 779-785 (2005)

To examine the roles of active hypusinated eIF5A (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A) and polyamines in cell proliferation, mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cells were treated with an inhibitor of deoxyhypusine synthase, N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7), or with an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), or with DFMO plus an inhibitor of spermine synthase, N1-(3-aminopropyl)cyclohexylamine (APCHA). Treatment with GC7 decreased the level of active eIF5A on day 1 without affecting cellular polyamine content, and inhibition of cell growth occurred from day 2. This delay reflects the fact that eIF5A was present in excess and was very stable in these cells. Treatment with DFMO or with DFMO plus APCHA inhibited cell growth on day 1. DFMO greatly reduced the levels of putrescine and spermidine, and formation of active eIF5A began to decrease when the level of spermidine fell below 8 nmol/mg protein after 12 h of incubation with DFMO. The combination of DFMO and APCHA markedly decreased the levels of putrescine and spermine and significantly reduced the level of spermidine, but did not affect the level of active eIF5A until day 3 when spermidine level decreased to 7 nmol/mg protein. The results show that a decrease in either active eIF5A or polyamines inhibits cell growth, indicating that eIF5A and polyamines are independently involved in cell growth.

[2005-2] Uemura T. et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 328, 1028-1033 (2005)

It has been reported that Gap1p on the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can catalyze the uptake of many kinds of amino acids. In the present study, we found that Gap1p also catalyzed the uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but not spermine. The Km and Vmax values for putrescine and spermidine were 390 and 21 [micro]M, and 4.6 and 0.59 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The uptake of putrescine was strongly inhibited by basic amino acids, lysine, arginine, and histidine, whose Ki values were 25-35 [micro]M. Thus, it is deduced that spermidine and basic amino acids have almost the same affinity for Gap1p. When the concentrations of amino acids in the medium were reduced to one-third and 0.5mM putrescine or 0.1mM spermidine was added to the medium, accumulation of putrescine or spermidine by Gap1p was observed. Furthermore, when yeast was transformed with the GAP1 gene and cultured in the presence of 60 mM putrescine, cell growth was inhibited through overaccumulation of putrescine. GAP1 mRNA was found to be induced by polyamines. This is the first report of the identification, at a molecular level, of a polyamine uptake protein on the plasma membrane in eukaryotes.

[2005-3] Uemura T. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 280, 9646-9652 (2005)

The subcellular localization of the polyamine transporter TPO1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined by sucrose gradient centrifugation and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. When expressed from a multi-copy vector, TPO1 was located mainly on the plasma membrane, but with some localization on the vacuolar membrane. Polyamine transport by TPO1 was dependent on pH. Uptake of spermidine and spermine occurred at alkaline pH (pH 8.0), whereas inhibition of spermidine uptake, but not spermine uptake, was observed at acidic pH (pH 5.0). This suggests that TPO1 catalyzes polyamine excretion at acidic pH, similar to the PotE transporter in Escherichia coli. Paraquat, a polyamine analogue, was excreted by TPO1 at a rate comparable with the excretion of spermidine (deduced from the inhibition of spermidine uptake) at pH 5.0. However, excretion of preloaded radiolabeled spermidine and spermine was not observed in intact cells, suggesting that preloaded spermidine (or spermine) exists mainly as spermidine (or spermine)-ribosome complex in cells. The transport activity of TPO1 was enhanced through phosphorylation at Ser19 by protein kinase C and at Thr52 by casein kinase 1. Sorting of TPO1 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane was enhanced through phosphorylation at Ser342 by cAMP-dependent protein kinases 1 and 2.

[2005-4] Yan, D. H. et al., J. Physiol. 563, 713-724 (2005)

The outward component of the strong inward rectifier potassium current, I(K1), is significantly larger in ventricles than in atria of the heart, resulting in faster repolarization at the final phase of the action potential in ventricles. However, the underlying mechanism of the difference in I(K1) remains poorly understood. I(K1) channels are composed of subunits from the Kir2 subfamily, and I(K1) amplitude is determined by the voltage-dependent blockade of the channel by the intracellular polyamines spermine and spermidine, and by Mg2+. Using a perforated patch-clamp method, which minimizes changes in the intracellular polyamine and Mg2+ concentrations, we detected repolarization-induced outward I(K1) transients, which are caused by competition between Mg2+ and spermine to block the channel, in ventricular but not in atrial myocytes from guinea-pig heart. The contribution of the Kir2.3 subunit to the I(K1) channel was found to be minor in the guinea-pig heart, because the activation time course of the Kir2.3 currents was approximately ~10-fold slower than those of I(K1), and the marked external pH sensitivity of the Kir2.3 currents was not found in I(K1). Both the Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 currents recorded from inside-out patches exhibited outward transients similar to those of ventricular I(K1) in the presence of 5-10 [micro]M spermine and 0.6-1.1 mM Mg2+, and their amplitudes were diminished by increasing the spermine or spermidine concentrations. The total and free polyamine concentrations in guinea-pig cardiac tissues were higher in atria than ventricles. These results strongly suggest that different intracellular polyamine concentrations are responsible for the difference in atrial and ventricular I(K1) of the guinea-pig heart.

[2005-5] Kusama-Eguchi, K. et al., Amino Acids 28, 139-143 (2005)

Neurolathyrism is a motor neuron disease characterized by spastic paraparesis in the hind legs, and is caused by grass pea, Lathyrus sativus, which contains the excitotoxic amino acid, 3-N-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (L-beta-ODAP), an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamatergic receptor agonist. In an attempt to make a useful model of this disease, the CNS distribution and toxicity of L-beta-ODAP was studied in rat neonates after parenteral administration. L-beta-ODAP was detected in the spinal cord as well as in the pons/medulla oblongata, though only small amounts in the latter. Repeated injection of L-beta-ODAP resulted in rats with paraparesis of the legs, though at a low incidence rate of 0.032. These paralyzed rats displayed the severe atrophy of the ventral root of the lumbar cord as well as degenerations of motor neuron. The rats were useful models for the study of motor neuron degeneration in the spinal cord.

[2005-6] Tachihara, K. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 280, 12637-12642 (2005)

The properties of the protein encoded by YKL174c (TPO5) were studied. It was found that TPO5 excretes putrescine effectively and spermidine less effectively. gamma-Aminobutyric acid slightly inhibited the excretion of putrescine, but basic amino acids did not affect excretion, suggesting that TPO5 preferentially recognizes polyamines. Accordingly, yeast cells transformed with the plasmid encoding YKL174c (TPO5) were resistant to toxicity caused by 120 mm putrescine or by 3 mm spermidine, and a mutant with a disrupted YKL174c (TPO5) gene was sensitive to toxicity by 90 mm putrescine. The growth of this mutant was faster than that of the wild-type strain. In parallel, there was an increase in putrescine and spermidine content of the YKL174c (TPO5) mutant compared with wild-type. It is noted that TPO5 functions as a suppressor of cell growth by excreting polyamines. The level of YKL174c (TPO5) mRNA was increased by the addition of polyamines to the medium. The degree of induction of the mRNA was spermine > spermidine > putrescine. The subcellular localization of TPO5 was determined by immunostaining of hemagglutinin-tagged TPO5, and it was found on Golgi or post-Golgi secretory vesicles. Excretion of putrescine and spermidine by TPO5 was reduced in cells that have mutations in the secretory or endocytic pathways, indicating that both processes are involved in the excretion of polyamines.

[2005-7] Homma, R. et al., Int J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 37, 1911-1920 (2005)

The effects of polyamines on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in the presence of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were examined because it is known that heparin (HP) interacts with polyamines, especially with spermine. Spermine was able to reverse the prolongation of coagulation time of rabbit plasma caused by HP. The effects of various GAGs on thrombin activity in the presence of anti-thrombin III (AT) were then tested using a synthetic substrate. Inhibition of thrombin activity by GAGs was in the order HP>heparan sulfate (HS)>dermatan sulfate (DS)>>chondroitin sulfate (CS) hyaluronan (HA). When these GAGs were fully sulfonated, the inhibitory activity of HS, DS, CS and HA, but not HP, became stronger. The effects of GAGs on thrombin activity were reversed by polyamines, in particular spermine. The EC50 value of spermine for reversal of HP inhibition was 30-50 [micro]M, and the Kd value of spermine for heparin was 41.1 [micro]M. Analysis by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) indicated that the interaction between AT and HP was weakened by spermine through its binding to HP. The effect of HP on fibrinolysis was then examined. When Glu-plasminogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) were used as enzyme source, HP strongly enhanced the plasmin activity and spermine reversed this effect. Analysis by SPR suggests that the structure of the active site of tPA may be changed through the ternary complex formation of tPA, HP and spermine. The results indicate that blood coagulation was enhanced and fibrinolysis was weakened by spermine in the presence of HP.

[2005-8] Hirokawa, G. et al., RNA 11, 1317-1328 (2005)

Protein synthesis is initiated on ribosomal subunits. However, it is not known how 70S ribosomes are dissociated into small and large subunits. Here we show that 70S ribosomes, as well as the model post-termination complexes, are dissociated into stable subunits by cooperative action of three translation factors: ribosome recycling factor (RRF), elongation factor G (EF-G), and initiation factor 3 (IF3). The subunit dissociation is stable enough to be detected by conventional sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC). GTP, but not nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, is essential in this process. We found that RRF and EF-G alone transiently dissociate 70S ribosomes. However, the transient dissociation cannot be detected by SDGC. IF3 stabilizes the dissociation by binding to the transiently formed 30S subunits, preventing re-association back to 70S ribosomes. The three-factor-dependent stable dissociation of ribosomes into subunits completes the ribosome cycle and the resulting subunits are ready for the next round of translation.

[2005-9] Shiokawa, K. et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 336, 682-691 (2005)

Overexpression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) in Xenopus fertilized eggs activates caspase-9 and executes maternal program of apoptosis shortly after midblastula transition (MBT). We find that overexpression of caspase-8 and p53, like that of SAMDC, induces apoptosis in Xenopus late blastulae. The apoptosis induced by p53 was abolished by injection of mRNA for xdm-2, a negative regulator of p53, and by injection of a peptide inhibitor or a dominant-negative type mutant of caspase-9, but not caspase-8. The apoptosis induced by SAMDC was not abolished by injection of xdm-2 mRNA, but was abolished by injection of a peptide inhibitor or a dominant-negative type mutant mRNA of both caspase-9 and caspase-8. Unlike caspase-9 mRNA, caspase-8 mRNA did not occur as a maternal mRNA rather induced to be expressed during cleavage stage (pre-MBT stage) by overexpression of SAMDC but not p53. Furthermore, while activities to process procaspase-8 and procaspase-9 appeared in SAMDC-overexpressed apoptotic embryos, the activity to process procaspase-8 did not appear in p53-overexpressed apoptotic embryos. We conclude there are at least two pathways in the execution of the maternal program of apoptosis in Xenopus embryos; one being through do novo expression of caspase-8 gene during cleavage stage, and the other without involvement of caspase-8 .

[2005-10] Tomitori H. et al., Stroke 36, 2609-2613 (2005)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We found previously that plasma levels of acrolein (CH2=CHCHO) and spermine oxidase (SMO) were well correlated with the degree of severity of chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to test whether the levels of these 2 markers and of acetylpolyamine oxidase (AcPAO) were increased in the plasma of stroke patients. METHODS: The activity of AcPAO and SMO and the level of protein-conjugated acrolein in plasma of the stroke patients and normal subjects were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and ELISA, respectively. Focal infarcts were estimated by MRI or computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: The levels of AcPAO, SMO, and acrolein were significantly increased in the plasma of stroke patients. The size of stroke was nearly parallel with the multiplied value of acrolein and total polyamine oxidase (AcPAO plus SMO). After the onset of stroke, an increase in AcPAO first occurred, followed by increased levels of SMO and finally acrolein. In 1 case, an increase in AcPAO and SMO preceded focal damage as detected by MRI or CT. Furthermore, stroke was confirmed by MRI in a number of mildly symptomatic patients (11 cases) who had increased levels of total polyamine oxidase and acrolein. Among apparently normal subjects (8 cases) who had high values of acroleinxtotal polyamine oxidase, stroke was found in 4 cases by MRI. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that increased levels of AcPAO, SMO, and acrolein are good markers of stroke.

[2005-11] Hoshino, K. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 280, 42801-42808 (2005)

The role of antizyme (AZ) and glycosaminoglycans in polyamine uptake by mammalian cells and mitochondria was examined using NIH3T3 and FM3A cells and rat liver mitochondria. AZ is synthesized as two isoforms (29 and 24.5 kDa) due to the existence of two initiation codon AUGs in the AZ mRNA. Most AZ existed as the 24.5-kDa form translatable from the second AUG, but a portion of the 29-kDa AZ from the first AUG was associated with mitochondria because of the presence of a mitochondrial targeting signal between the first and the second methionine. The predominance of the 24.5-kDa isoform was mainly due to the presence of spermidine and a favorable sequence context (Kozak sequence) at the second initiation codon AUG. Spermine uptake by NIH3T3 cells was inhibited by both 29- and 24.5-kDa AZs, but uptake by rat liver mitochondria was not influenced by either form of AZ. Because spermine uptake by mitochondria caused a release of cytochrome c, an enhancer of apoptosis, we looked for inhibitors of mitochondrial spermine uptake other than AZ. Cations such as Na+, K+, and Mg2+ were inhibitors of the mitochondrial uptake. It has been reported that heparan sulfate on glypican-1 plays important roles in spermine uptake by human embryonic lung fibroblasts. Heparin, but not heparan sulfate, slightly inhibited spermine uptake by FM3A cells in the absence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ but had no effect under physiological conditions in the presence of Mg2+ and CaS2+.