Abstracts of papers (2006)

Last Update: 12/08/2006

Abstracts of papers (2006)

[2006-1] Matsumoto, K. et al., Heterocycles 67, 361-367 (2006)

The title compound was prepared from [alpha]-tert-butyl N[alpha]-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-glutamate (Boc-Glu-OBu-t) by N-alkylation of 3-methylpyridine after one carbon-elongation through six steps.

[2006-2] Igarashi, K. and Kashiwagi, K., J. Biochem. 139, 11-16 (2006)

We have recently proposed an idea to explain how polyamines enhance cell growth in Escherichia coli. Since most polyamines exist as polyamine-RNA complexes, our idea is that polyamines stimulate several kinds of protein synthesis which are important for cell growth at the level of translation. We found that synthesis of oligopeptide binding protein (OppA), which is important for nutrient supply, adenylate cyclase (Cya), RNA polymerase sigma(38) subunit (RpoS), transcription factor of iron transport operon (FecI), and transcription factor of growth-related genes including rRNA and some kinds of tRNA synthesis (Fis) was enhanced by polyamines at the level of translation. We proposed that a group of genes whose expression is enhanced by polyamines at the level of translation be referred to as a "polyamine modulon." By DNA microarray, we found that 309 of 2,742 mRNA species were up-regulated by polyamines. Among the 309 up-regulated genes, transcriptional enhancement of at least 58 genes might be attributable to increased levels of the transcription factors Cya, RpoS, FecI, and Fis. This unifying molecular mechanism is proposed to underlie the physiological role of polyamines in controlling the growth of Escherichia coli .

[2006-3] Nishimura, K. et al., J. Biochem. 139, 81-90 (2006)

Changes in polyamine levels during aging were measured in 3-, 10- and 26-week-old female mice. The level of polyamines in pancreas, brain, and uterus was maintained during these periods. The level of spermidine slightly decreased in intestine, and decreased significantly in thymus, spleen, ovary, liver, stomach, lung, kidney, heart and muscle during these periods. In skin, the level of spermidine was maximal in 10-week-old mice and markedly reduced in 26-week-old mice. The results suggest that maintenance of polyamine levels may play important roles in the function of the pancreas, brain and uterus in 3- to 26-week-old mice. We next looked for polyamine-rich food materials as a dietary source of polyamines. Foods found to be rich in polyamines included wheat germ, rice bran, black rice, Philippine mango, green pepper, Japanese pumpkin, nuts, fermented pickles, pond smelt, turban shell viscera, whelk viscera, salted salmon roe, salted cod roe, beef intestine (boiled) and liver of eel, beef, pork and chicken; and, as previously reported, soybean, fermented soybean (natto), mushrooms, orange and green tea leaf. These results offer useful information when it becomes necessary to ingest polyamines from food.

[2006-4] Higashi, K. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 281, 9527-9537 (2006)

Polypeptide release factor 2 (RF2) in Escherichia coli is known to be synthesized by a +1 frameshift at the 26th UGA codon of RF2 mRNA. Polyamines were found to stimulate the +1 frameshift of RF2 synthesis, an effect that was reduced by excess RF2. Polyamine stimulation of +1 frameshift of RF2 synthesis was observed at the early logarithmic phase, which is the important phase in determination of the overall rate of cell growth. A Shine-Dalgarno-like sequence was necessary for an efficient +1 frameshift of RF2 synthesis, but not for polyamine stimulation. Spectinomycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, and neomycin reduced polyamine stimulation of the +1 frameshift of RF2 synthesis. The results suggest that a structural change of the A site on 30 S ribosomal subunits is important for polyamine stimulation of the +1 frameshift. The level of mRNAs of ribosomal proteins and elongation factors having UAA as termination codon was enhanced by polyamines, and OppA synthesis from OppA mRNA having UAA as termination codon was more enhanced by polyamines than that from OppA mRNA having a UGA termination codon. Furthermore, synthesis of ribosomal protein L20 and elongation factor G from the mRNAs having a UAA termination codon was enhanced by polyamines at the level of translation and transcription. The results suggest that some protein synthesis from mRNAs having a UAA termination codon is enhanced at the level of translation through polyamine stimulation of +1 frameshift of RF2 synthesis. It is concluded that prfB encoding RF2 is a new member of the polyamine modulon.

[2006-5] Igarashi, K., Yakugaku Zasshi 126, 455-471 (2006) (in Japanese)

Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are essential for normal cell growth. The polyamine level in cells is regulated by biosynthesis, degradation, and transport. The role of antizyme on polyamine biosynthesis and transport in mammalian cells and characteristics of polyamine transport in Escherichia coli and yeast are described briefly in this review. In addition, the effects of polyamines on protein synthesis and the NMDA receptor are outlined. Finally, the correlation between acrolein produced from polyamines by polyamine oxidase and chronic renal failure and brain stroke is summarized. Increased levels of polyamine oxidase and acrolein are good markers of chronic renal failure and brain stroke.

[2006-6] Soksawatmaekhin, W. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 281, 29213-29220 (2006)

Amino acid residues involved in cadaverine uptake and cadaverine-lysine antiporter activity were identified by site-directed mutagenesis of the CadB protein. It was found that Tyr(73), Tyr(89), Tyr(90), Glu(204), Tyr(235), Asp(303), and Tyr(423) were strongly involved in both uptake and excretion and that Tyr(55), Glu(76), Tyr(246), Tyr(310), Cys(370), and Glu(377) were moderately involved in both activities. Mutations of Trp(43), Tyr(57), Tyr(107), Tyr(366), and Tyr(368) mainly affected uptake activity, and Trp(41), Tyr(174), Asp(185), and Glu(408) had weak effects on uptake. The decrease in the activities of the mutants was reflected by an increase in the Km value. Mutation of Arg(299) mainly affected excretion, suggesting that Arg(299) is involved in the recognition of the carboxyl group of lysine. These results indicate that amino acid residues involved in both uptake and excretion, or solely in excretion, are located in the cytoplasmic loops and the cytoplasmic side of transmembrane segments, whereas residues involved in uptake were located in the periplasmic loops and the transmembrane segments. The SH group of Cys(370) seemed to be important for uptake and excretion, because both were inhibited by the existence of Cys(125), Cys(389), or Cys(394) together with Cys(370). The relative topology of 12 transmembrane segments was determined by inserting cysteine residues at various sites and measuring the degree of inhibition of transport through crosslinking with Cys(370). The results suggest that a hydrophilic cavity is formed by the transmembrane segments II, III, IV, VI, VII, X, XI, and XII.

[2006-7] Khan, N. A. et al., J. Lipid Res. 47, 2306-2313 (2006)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PUFA of the n-3 family, inhibited the growth of FM3A mouse mammary cancer cells by arresting their progression from the late-G(1) to the S phase of the cell cycle. DHA upregulated p27(Kip1) levels by inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, i.e., ERK1/ERK2. Indeed, inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation by DHA, U0126 [chemical MAPK extracellularly signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor], and MEK(SA) (cells expressing dominant negative constructs of MEK) resulted in the accumulation of p27(Kip1). MAP kinase (MAPK) inhibition by DHA did not increase p27(Kip1) mRNA levels. Rather, this fatty acid stabilized p27(Kip1) contents and inhibited MAPK-dependent proteasomal degradation of this protein. DHA also diminished cyclin E phosphorylation, cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) activity, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in these cells. Our study shows that DHA arrests cell growth by modulating the phosphorylation of cell cycle-related proteins.

[2006-8] Eto, S. et al., Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 210, 145-151 (2006)

Polyamines play an essential role in the growth and differentiation of mammalian cells. The depletion of intracellular polyamines results in the suppression of growth. Proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells (MC) is the most common pathologic change in many forms of glomerulonephritis. Agmatine is a metabolite of arginine via arginine decarboxylase (ADC), highly expressed in the kidney, and unique in its capacity to suppress intracellular polyamine levels required for proliferation. As agmatine enters mammalian cells via the polyamine transport system, its antiproliferative effects may preferentially target cells with increased proliferative kinetics. In the present study, we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of agmatine on human MC in vitro. MC proliferation was stimulated with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB, 20 ng/ml). Cell proliferation was measured using the (4.3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) proliferation assay. Intracellular polyamine levels were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, and cell death was assessed by cellular DNA fragmentation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MTT proliferation assay showed that agmatine significantly suppressed proliferation of human MC treated with 20% FBS or 5% FBS + PDGF as compared to human MC treated with 5% FBS. Polyamine levels were markedly lower in cells treated with agmatine, and proliferation was rescued by administration of putrescine. The fragmented DNA was hardly detected in agmatine-treated human MC. In summary, human MC stimulated to increase their proliferative kinetics are significantly more sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of agmatine than normally cultured cells. Suppressed proliferation of the agmatine-treated human MC is not due to increased cell death. These results suggest that agmatine is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of human mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis.

[2006-9] Igarashi, K. et al., Amino Acids 31, 477-483 (2006)

The levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) and polyamine oxidase in plasma of patients with chronic renal failure were determined. The level of putrescine was increased but the level of spermine was decreased in the plasma of these patients. The patients also had increased plasma polyamine oxidase activity leading to increased degradation of spermine. As acrolein was a major toxic compound produced from spermine by polyamine oxidase, the levels of free and protein-conjugated acrolein in plasma were also measured. Acrolein levels were enhanced in plasma of patients with chronic renal failure. The accumulated acrolein found as protein conjugates was equivalent to 170 [micro]M, which was about 5-fold higher than in plasma of normal subjects. It was found that acrolein is mainly produced by spermine oxidase in plasma. An increase in putrescine, spermine oxidase and acrolein in plasma was observed in all cases such as diabetic nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis and nephrosclerosis. After patients with chronic renal failure had undergone hemodialysis, their levels of plasma polyamines, spermine oxidase and acrolein returned towards normal. It is likely that acrolein produced from spermine accumulates in the blood due to decreased excretion into urine and may function as a uremic "toxin".

[2006-Book1] Igarashi, K., and Kashiwagi, K., Chapter 25 in"Polyamine Cell Signaling" pp. 433-448 (2006)

[Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives]
In E. coli, some properties of the subunits of ABC transporters (substrate-binding protein, PotD and PotF, and ATPase, PotA) have been clarified. However, the properties of transmembrane proteins, such as PotB and PotC, still remain to be clarified. We hope that in the near future how the four subunits of the ABC transporter function together in polyamine transport will be clarified. Elucidation of the polyamine-binding site on PotD and PotF led to the identification of amino acid residues crucial for polyamine binding to the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors. As for the polyamine transport proteins consisting of 12 transmembrane segments linked by hydrophobic segments of variable length with the NH2- and COOH-termini located in the cytoplasm (PotE and CadB), the physiological functions and amino acids residues involved in the activity have been elucidated. The tertiary structure of PoE and CadB will be clarified soon.
In eukaryotes, some properties of polyamine excretion proteins are clarified in yeast. All of those have 12 transmembrane segments. Thus the structure and functions of these proteins will be elucidated, referring to the information on PotE and CadB. However, the properites of polyamine uptake proteins are still unclear, although it is clear that polyamine uptake is negatively regulated by AZ. The demonstration of polyamine uptake through endocytosis mediated by glypican-1 is interesting. Nevertheless, it is still important to look for polyamine-specific transporters in eukaryotes.