[2021-3] Sakamoto, A. et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, 1307 (2021)
Polyamines stimulate the synthesis of specific proteins at the level of translation, and the genes encoding these proteins are termed as the “polyamine modulon”. The circadian clock generates daily rhythms in mammalian physiology and behavior. We investigated the role of polyamines in the circadian rhythm using control and polyamine-reduced NIH3T3 cells. The intracellular polyamines exhibited a rhythm with a period of about 24 h. In the polyamine-reduced NIH3T3 cells, the circadian period of circadian clock genes was lengthened and the synthesis of BMAL1 and REV-ERBα was significantly reduced at the translation level. Thus, the mechanism of polyamine stimulation of these protein syntheses was analyzed using NIH3T3 cells transiently transfected with genes encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion mRNA with normal or mutated 5’-untranslated region (5’-UTR) of Bmal1 or Rev-erbα mRNA. It was found that polyamines stimulated BMAL1 and REV-ERBα synthesis through the enhancement of ribosomal shunting during the ribosome shunting within the 5’-UTR of mRNAs. Accordingly, the genes encoding Bmal1 and Rev-erbα were identified as the members of “polyamine modulon”, and these two proteins are significantly involved in the circadian rhythm control.